The aim of the paper is to verify whether energy transition, seenas a development of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy savings,has an impact on welfare in rural areas where green energy infrastructureshave been installed. The study is based on two assumptions: the first is thatRES generally need wide spaces more frequently located in open, not built,rural areas; the second is that some rural areas are facing severe welfareissues like ageing of the population, poverty, and cutbacks in socialservices. We suppose that material and immaterial resources like new jobs,royalties, and social cohesion can derive to these exhausted communitiesfrom energy provision or saving. The study concerns four Italian rural areas,each selected because of the presence within it of an important energystructure. The framework for analyzing the two fields - welfare and energy - is a combination of the institutional and network approaches (Owen-Smithand Powell 2008). Both traditions of study meet the need to achieveknowledge on
sectors deeply affected by public intervention (policies) andby restricted business circles (oligopolies). [Publisher's Text].