The article reflects on the increase in the number of compulsory vaccinations in Italy introduced by the Lorenzin law of 2017. Starting from the idea of public health, the article proposes an analysis on the relationship between protection of the population and individual freedom. Public health policies are born with the aim of promoting wellbeing and health but,at the same time, over the years they have represented an instrument of moral reform. In this frame, the laws for compulsory vaccinations, starting with compulsory health laws in the nineteenth-century England, show all the dilemmas of the liberal state. The article, therefore, from a historical and theoretical perspective, intends to start an analysis on the relationship between policies for safety, health and social control. [Publisher's text].