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The Bahía Honda region presents a situation typical of a good part of the Central American lowlands: forests cleared, vegetation affected by the sequence of pasture/burning/pasture, rivers contaminated, poor cultivation still by traditional means, with limited access to fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, pesticides, and so on, and a gradual exodus from rural areas. All this adds up to create a region of special interest. In spite of its apparent degradation, most of the original flora and fauna still survives in fragments of woodland. So here we have a scarcely populated territory, degraded to some extent, but with refuges of the original flora and fauna. Under these circumstances, the directors of the company, Bahía Honda LDC, decided to organize programs of study and regeneration of the environment. This project is a pathbreaking study of the Central American tropical environment, aimed at finding solutions to combine reasonable development with intelligent environmental protection. The first step toward the launching of this program was all too clear: to collect basic information about the flora and fauna that would enable the experts to proceed with their plans on a firm footing – to acquire the first data upon which to build the pyramid of knowledge – a catalogue raisonné of the flora and fauna. Focusing on the terrestrial environment, we saw that we should begin with a catalog of vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) and forest species (vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens), as well as some groups of invertebrates (insects, poisonous arthropods, etc.). The present study follows this line of reasoning. [Publisher's Text]